1. ESD Definition:

ESD standing for ElectroStatic Discharge; the static discharges from nature and the other electrical sources. The charges transformed and displaced when its potential levels are unbalanced then make a complete circuit.

An explanation of: Static Electricity.


2. ESD straps:

The electronic workers are wearing the ESD straps while they are in contacting with the sensitive electronic components. The ESD straps commercially comprise a wrist band strap, a coiled cord, and 2 heel straps. The wrist strap is a flexible rubber band to wear at the wrist for connecting to the ESD ground at the working benches by the coiled cord, and 2 rubber heel straps which wrap each heel to connect the worker's body to the manufacturing floor. Please see the ESD circuit diagram. The Volt meter is removed at the normal operation.

Click for Wrist strap image at:


3. How the direction of electrical flow was defined?


People are looking at the electrical direction with the electrical flown in both directions of two poles or terminals:

From inside the battery: The Conventional Flow: From (-) to (+) pole. The Electron Flow: From (+) to (-) pole.

Because the positive holes are having the lower density and they are disappearing at the positive side because it is potentially received the heavier negative charges from the negative pole, the charges move toward positive pole to fill up the holes, actually the holes did not move to the negative terminal, but the free covalent electrons had moved to the holes at the positive terminal, they then left the holes from the vacant electrons on the negative terminal of the battery.

(Electron Flow from the courtesy of AC-DC: Inside the Battery.)

Reading the voltages:


If we do not make a good contact between the heel straps and the floor, we have the open voltage. If we remove the coiled cord, the voltage will drop for reading about 30 mv, this prơved that the higher voltage at the coiled cord flew to the lower voltage at the wrist band on the human body.

We measured the voltage of the hot ESD ground like we checked a regular 1.5 volts AA battery, it is the thermo-couple which is created by the dislike metals at the different temperatures, where the heat transfered from the hotter body to the cooler body, as the solar cells. When we connect the negative (-) lead of the volt meter to the negative (-) pole of a regular 1.5 volts AA battery, and positive lead (+) to the positive (+) pole, we will have the positive reading 1.5 on the display. The positive value remains positive at the lower voltage on this direction.

If we reverse the leads of the digital volt meter, we will have the negative reading.

Since the ESD engineers designed the ESD straps with the direction of the electron flow from (+) to the (-) terminal as shown at the above image from PBS, as the ESD straps company claimed in their document; but they are actually trying to collect the charges from the hot grounds at the electronic benches to the workers which are having the constant temperature and about the same bodily resistance, at about 50,000 ohms in comparing to 1,000,000 ohms resistant of the coiled cord at the ESD benches. Because we have Voltage V = (Current I * Resistant R), so the voltage of the coiled cord resistor is greater than the voltage of human body, so the hot ground with the higher voltage will potentially flow to the human body on the cool floor, the floor does not have much charges from the lights and radio waves, and the current is the same amperes in the series circuit. Please see the ESD circuit diagram below.

The ESD ground including the positive hot ESD plug which is indirectly heated by the industrial electrical wires, hot weather, and the heaters to form a thermo-couple with the negative cool floor, where this negative terminal does not have the negative charges as much as the negative terminal of the battery to be labeled for the electron flow, because the cool floor does not have more charges than the hot ground, since we directly checked the ESD plug to the cool floor by the digital volt meter without the coiled cord and human body, we had the open voltage. We also have the heat transfered from the hotter to the cooler body, but not in reverse from cool to hotter.
Please see Notes about the reversibility and heat transfer.

However, to satisfy the weekly or monthly ESD test by the electronic company, the heel straps must be cleaned for the continuity of the ESD circuit at the ESD bench, and the cool floor must be electronically conducted to the ESD plug on the ESD bench by the free electrons of the atoms on the surfaces of the floor, the ESD bench legs, and the structure of the building.

Where the ESD plug is normally located above the floor at around 2 feet high, the electrons from the ESD plug is not directly flow to the floor for naming the electron flow, and the small amount of free electrons on the floor won't even fly up to the plug but they are conducted by the coiled cord and human resistor, so these electrons are classified as the static charges those helped to make a completed and closed path, mainly the floor is not not a source of energy, but it is symbolized as a battery for a thermocouple where the electric started to flow from the plug, outside the battery, then to the floor.

So we choose the conventional flow for this ESD circuit diagram.

Thereby the negative black lead of the digital volt meter with the millivolt scale which is connected to the human hand at the pushbutton latch, and the heel straps must conduct with the clean floor, while the positive red lead is connected to the coiled cord, and the other end of the coiled cord with the banana clip or the alligator clip is hooked up to the plug at the working ESD bench.

You can look at the copper top batteries without the paint layer at the positive pole, this genius design effectively collects the charges or radiations into the positive copper end for longer lasting batteries. You will be able to verify this direction with a DC millivolt meter in a safe environment at the minimum interferences; we got the positive readout from meter on battery when we connect the positive red lead to the positive terminal or pole of battery, and negative to negative poles; however, when you connect the red probe of meter to the metal latch on the wrist band of the worker, while the negative black probe to the plug on the ESD bench, you will see the negative value on the readout.

We will have positive reading at around 100 mv.

Reading the resistors:

According to "THE MEASURE OF MAN:
TECHNOLOGIZING THE VICTORIAN BODY. Iwan Rhys Morus. The Queen’s University, Belfas":

The highest recorded resistance with dry skin was 50,000 ohms while the lowest recorded resistance with skin moistened with salt water was 5,000 ohms. Page 19 of 34 on html or 267 of the document":

Click for more information of The Human Resistant values or
the directions of the electric flow: Conventional versus electron flow:

From one megohms resistor at the bench, we have a potential voltage which will always flow to the lower potential at the smaller resistant of human body as we charge our car battery, at the small current at (100 mv/50,000 ohms) for about 0.002 milliamperes (mA) to (100 mv/5,000 ohms) for 0.02 mA, before the heat dissipation, but it will eventually zip the electronic parts when we have had the thunderstorms and the other existing sudend electrostatic discharges such as the wireless communications, and the charges never potentially flow to the higher heated ESD ground.

Reading the grounds:

The sudden discharge of the charges in the field, toward both the ESD ground and the human body, will always potentially go from the higher to the lower energy level at the human body. The ESD ground also collects the static field from the air, high power electrical wires, and heavy industrial lights onto the vinyl desk and the coiled cord is also served as the high gain antenna. The building structures and machines around the working benches are having the larger mass, so it is absorbing larger heat then releasing more heat than human body, while the smaller human body is at constant temperature. The coiled cord alone gives you 10 folds from the voltage at the ESD ground, while the digital meter normally showing about 10 millivolts when two leads of meter are connected to the open air, and the human body alone will show open voltage, except when the EKG machine is used to check the heart.

If the flow rate at about 50 mA instantaneous current, this current is high enough to kill people, so if the organize crimes continuously connect some kind of charge generators to the ESD ground, they will contineously and silently kill people with your denied facts!

Verify digital meter for life:

In 1988, while attended an Air Conditioning Class at Eastfield College, 2 students measured the resistant of human body at about 30,000 to 50,000 ohms with a analog meter which has a needle to show readings.

The first sign of this kind of trouble is when your body gradually felt warm then very tire, at normal weather condition, where you known that you did not make or have suffered any aggressive behavior. If a worker consumed the strange chemical food to commit suicide while one is wearing the ESD straps and touching the sensitive components, for the temperature will momentarily transfer to the Field Effect Transistors or the common ground of the chips, before the heat can hardly enter the ESD hot ground!

If you measure your body charges by the same meter, with one probe connects to your wrist band while another probe to the floor, you won't find much of the differences, the normal reading is at about 10 millivolts, the same as we checked the open air for the field. People died by electrocution when the high voltage was built up in the closed series circuitry.

The ESD company stated about the safe wrist strap cord under 250 VAC, nothing was said about the faulty direction of the charge. The reason that a meter did not have the polarities of circuit around the ESD wrist band because the "possible frequency interferences of meter and remote controls". I meant the digital meter was probably fixed.

We know the remote control function while we are changing TV Channels up or down. So for the inspection purpose, should the Officer from OSHA or Electronic Engineers use the different models of digital and analog meters, along with a frequency meter to check for the real reading values ? As the "fixed digital display"; may be shown otherwise by the interferences.

As defined by the digital meter and the values of two resistors, the higher voltage will potentially flow to the lower voltage, as we charged the weak battery of our cars from the other running good cars, we have the direction of electrical flow from outside the thermo-couple, where the electrical flow in the wire, from the coiled cord to the human body by:
The Conventional Flow: From (+) ESD plug to (-) terminal at the heel straps on the floor, this direction is determined by the sign of the digital volt meter.
while the Electron Flow in the wires: From (-) to (+) terminal, or looking inside the energy source from (+) to (-) terminal as the image of the battery from PBS above, which is not determined for the this ESD circuit diagram, since the cool floor is not the energy source, the distance from the ESD plug on the ESD bench to the ESD floor is too high to work as a battery.

The ESD plug alone will have a small amount of the static electricity but this electricity remains statics until the coiled cord and the human resistor are connected to jump start the floor for a closed circuit path, and the digital meter shown the open voltage as stated above.

4. Human transistor:

Human body is at the negative charges or N channel, or negative pole, compare to a smaller body of ESD working shoes which is at the positive channel; while the manufacturing floor collected negative charges around the clock. This electronic worker formed a N channel JFET NPN (Junction Field Effect) Transistor . Constant temperature of inside human body is usually at 37C (98.6F). Therefore, the static current between the floor and the ESD shoes at the feet of workers must flow to the floor to discharge any excess charges, for the ESD straps to legally work as its said purpose!

When a worker is standing or walking on that floor, one's body weight creates a small electric current by piezoelectric pressure; beside a small amount of heat dissipation lost by heat transfer from warm human body to the cooler floor, except the vinyl floors which have more static charges than human body.

Whenever the sudden discharge of statics is externally occurred onto the body of a worker, or when that body is heated up by chemical or too hot weather, then we have this circuitry: The said ESD rubber strap is used to open the P Gate from NPN transistor above, since the abnormal negative charges from the floor and human body had entered the strap at the ESD shoe, which made the currents flown in opposite directions to gradually disconnect the NPN transistor.

If you have any problem understanding this circuitry, please check figures from notebook of RadioShack, author Forrest M. MIMS III : Getting Started in Electronics page 106.

While the ESD wrist strap above became a static collector to discharge to the normally cooler sensitive electronic components, because the circuit to the floor is disconnected when a sudden electrostatic discharge occurred. Human body carry positive polarity to use as a ground for Gate P of MOSFET with a large resistant input, compare to 2 electrical conducting N channels of the working bench's warmer ground and human body.

Human body has both negative and positive polarities which is depended on the potential differences of charges at the time. If 1 megohms resistant of the coiled cord has a smaller resistant than human body, that current will open circuit by the opposite directions within the said big transistor.


5. Hazadeous devices and human health:

Where do the charges go after they entered into your skin, after the heat dissipation drained off a little by contact the cool air, but the static charges raised in the relative low humidity weather? Instead of the Ireversibility, Dr Isaac Asimov once proposed that it is fair to state that The Second Law of Thermodynamics should be: "Heat transfers from hot to cold body".

If the ESD engineers can prove the otherwise, for the ESD charges to normally flow from human body to the ESD ground, then the electronic workers are draining their energy in average about 6 hours per day, after their overtimes and break times, enough for a perfect crime by making people slowly die sooner ; this evidence would raise the conflict of interest between the electronic companies and the firm that supplied the ESD straps, since some companies even gave the daily free coffee to wake their employees up during the working hours.

One out of seven normal citizens will get diabetes or the related high blood pressure illness, hemorrhoids, colon cancers, many types of skin disorders, and according to the American Heart Association, the coronary heart disease is the single largest killer of American women, while 49.2% of more women than men are died by the coronary heart related problems! Like to guess the reasons? You see more women are working in the electronic plants than men, since men get the harder and higher paid jobs out there, and women are looking prettier than men. Your body immune system is weaker if your antibodies are continuously fighting the antigens from the strange matters such as the charges from ESD straps which circulated inside human body by the osmosis process, provided the other factors remain the same, you may get infection before the habitually contagious AIDS.

In many pre-existing conditions, the illnesses and diseases are curable, if the symptoms were discovered soon enough and the trouble sources are stopped. A human cancer cell will not have a chance to abnormally grow, if the human organs are normally functioned in the safe environments, under the sun and cosmic rays which the human skin is naturally adapted in a normal biorhythm of days and nights, at about the same frequencies; as the human cells are divided when its reached the key limits, not by intaking the radiations from outside the human body, nor ESD charges for the early mutations.
Any material above absolute temperature will emit radiations, as we see the poultices help in transpiration and absorption of the substances into the interstices between molecules of a body as the pores of stones; while the radiation therapies kill both sick and its surrounding healthy cells.

We all known that too much of a good thing can do more harm than good. Sugar and salt are the good foods, but too much of sugar could bring you diabetics, and if a person forced you to consume daily salt while you are on diet with less salt for high blood pressure, then that person could have attempted murder you! When salt or sugar is broken down by heat into particles, atoms, and molecules from enzymes and ESD charges or catalyzers, the covalent electrons of these elements would have the similar effects as the hourly excessive charges from the ESD ground!
How can Foods And Drugs Administration approves this ESD strap for the corporates to require the electronic workers to wear it? Historically speaking, the ESD straps and the discovery of AIDS were introduced to us in the early 80s.



6. The Solution:

Since the static electricity exists and it stays in their place around the atoms, but the companies of the ESD straps have had made their completed paths for the circuit to potentially flow to the human bodies, and the heat always transferred from the hotter source to the cooler body, so with the sufficient voltage the light bulb or human body will glow at any direction of the electrical circuit, while wrong and excessive charges had attributed to the sickness of the electronic workers who mysteriously died or going to die by the high blood pressure, and the other related cardiovascular diseases.

Meanwhile, the temporary helps came from the insulated and reusable gloves to reduce the cost for the electronic companies, as the tests were done with two young test operators, where one operator who worn the cotton gloves had the lower number of the failed boards than the one with the ESD straps. The other help is the mixture of 6 water parts to 1 fabric softener part to be sprayed on the carpet floor to avoid the static shocks, the latest advice from Mr Michael Holigan, the Handyman.

The cost of the cotton gloves may be far less than the costs to pay for the health care from the insurance companies plus the training costs from the deaths of the skilled workers.

I had generally told an electrical engineer who agreed with me about the faulty direction of circuit from the ESD straps: "I known it, not because I am a genius, but I felt pain by this ESD strap which hurtted my body."

If you are a scientist, a doctor, a law enforce official, a great boss or even a suffering electronic engineer,... please help to replace the current ESD straps for the safer device.

7/31/1999. Revised from 09/14/2002, and 04/30/2008.

Thank you for your times to help on the ESD.

Can Le

Helpful links from to the other related ESD sites:

1. Static Electricity:
2. Images of ESD Straps:
3. Inside Battery:
4. Human Resistant Values:
5. Electrical Directions:
6. Risk Factors of Heart Disease and Stroke:
7. Electrostatic Applications:
8. ESD Journal:
9. What is Thermocouple:
10. Getting Started in Electronics: